Viral Immunology

Viral Immunology

Vaccines & Immunization

A Vaccine is a biological preparation which provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism in a weakened or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. Vaccines can be prophylactic or therapeutic. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that currently, licensed vaccines are available for twenty-five different preventable infections. For example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, HPV vaccine and the chicken pox vaccine. 

Immunization is an advanced process which triggers the bodys immune system to fight against infectious diseases, by the administration of a vaccine. The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Herd immunity can be when a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated.

Conjugate Vaccines

Conjugate vaccines are the combinations of a weak antigen with a strong antigen which helps immune system to have stronger response towards the weak antigen.

Edible Vaccines

Edible vaccines are genetically modified crops which contain added immunity for specific diseases and these possess many benefits over traditional vaccines, due to their lower manufacturing cost and a lack of negative side effects. When these are Ingested orally, it activates the immune system. Precisely, it helps in stimulating both the mucosal and humoral immune system. These are currently being developed for cholera, measles, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, foot and mouth disease.

Cancer Immunology

Cancer immunology is an integrative branch of biology solicitous with the role of the immune system in the progress and development of cancer. Cancer immunotherapy is the most well-known application in which immune system is used to treat cancer.

In 1957, Thomas and Burnet developed a theory known as Cancer immune-surveillance and put forward that lymphocytes act as sentinels in recognizing and eliminating continuously arising and nascent transformed cells. It is an important host protection process that decreases the rate of cancer through inhibition of carcinogenesis and maintaining of regular cellular homeostasis.

Tetanus Vaccine

Tetanus vaccine is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus, it is also known as tetanus toxoid (TT). It is also included in many number of vaccine combinations such as DTaP and Tdap which contain diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine, and DT and Td which contain diphtheria and tetanus vaccine.

Generally, five doses are recommended during Childhood, with a sixth one during adolescence. Additional doses are recommended for every 10 years. Women who are pregnant should make sure that they are up to date on their tetanus immunization and, if not, immunizing them can prevent neonatal tetanus.

HPV & Hepatitis Vaccines

HPV vaccines prevents infections by certain types of human papilloma virus. Currently Available vaccines protect against either two, four, or nine types of HPV and all the vaccines protect against at least HPV type-16 and type-18 that cause the greatest risk of cervical cancer. Additionally, they prevent some genital warts with the vaccines against type-4 and type-9 HPV providing greater protection.

Hepatitis B can be prevented by hepatitis B vaccine. It is recommended that within 24 hours of birth, first dose must be given and if necessary two or three more doses given after that which includes those who are with poor immune function such as from HIV/AIDS and those born premature.

HIV/AIDS Vaccines

The main purpose of HIV vaccine is to protect individuals from being infected with the virus by a preventive vaccine, or treating an HIV-infected person by a therapeutic vaccine. Generally, there are two types of approaches to an HIV vaccine. In an active vaccination approach, vaccine aims to induce an immune response against HIV and in a passive vaccination approach, preformed antibodies against HIV are administered.

The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global non-profiting, public-private partnership working to expedite the development of vaccines to prevent HIV infection and AIDS. This organization takes an exhaustive approach to HIV and AIDS that supports existing HIV prevention and treatment programs while emphasizing the need for new AIDS prevention tools.

T-Cells and B-Cells

A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus that plays a central role in the immune response. T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. The name T cell originates from the thymus where they develop from precursor cells derived from the bone marrow.

B cells are also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Additionally, B cells present antigen and secrete cytokines.

Infectious Diseases

Infectious disease is also known as infectology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections. An infectious disease specialist practice may consist largely of managing nosocomial infections or it may also be out-patient based.

Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

Allergies or allergic diseases are caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.

Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and easily triggered bronchospasms. Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath

Immunology is the study of the immune system, it is an important branch of the medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through various lines of defense. If the immune system is not functioning as it should, it can result in disease, such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. It is also now becoming clear that immune responses contribute to the development of many common disorders not traditionally viewed as immunologic, including metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s.


Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an "autoimmune disease". In-general these diseases are treated with Steroids.


Immuno-informatics is the study of molecules of the immune system by applying informatics techniques. Principal goal of this study is the efficient and effective prediction of immunogenicity. This may be done at the level of epitopes, sub-unit vaccines, or weakened or inactive pathogens.


Immunogenicity is the ability of a pathogen or a part or molecule of a pathogen to induce a specific immune response when first exposed to surveillance by the immune system. The capacity for recognition by the adaptive immune response molecular machinery in a recall response is known as Antigenicity.

Mosquito-Borne Diseases- Vaccination

Diseases associated with mosquito borne are sporadic. The mosquitoes can transmit the diseases in the form of pathogens, viruses, bacteria without getting affected themselves. The culprits are female mosquitoes, some of the parasites acts as a vector in penetrating the deadly falviviridae viruses which invades into host cell then the viral RNA which replicates and increase its ratio and weakens the immune body.

Vaccination can alter and regulate the invasion of mosquitos. But the ratio of vaccines available comparing to the modern world mosquito borne diseases are relatively low which requires focus. 

Pediatric Vaccination

The word pediatrics itself associates with the prevention of infant, adult and neonatal from diseases. Pediatric vaccines provide greater immunity and resistance against deadly diseases. The baby immune system doesn’t have a robust reaction towards diseases as the body is incapable of producing antibodies up to some period. If the child is suffering from specific antibody deficiency the vaccinations will help him in doing his job. Vaccinations have numerous positive benefits which outweigh the side effects.


The branch of medicine which deals with immune responses associated with disease is termed as Immunopathology. It includes the study of the pathology of an organism, organ system, or disease with respect to the immune system, immunity, and immune responses. According to biology, it refers to damage caused to an organism by its own immune response, as a result of an infection. It could be due to mismatch between pathogen and host species, and often occurs when an animal pathogen infects a human.

Vaccines Pre-clinical & Clinical Trials

The main aim of any vaccine is safety and efficacy. The administration of vaccines has relatively increased due to this concerns are raised over the safety and its efficacy. Many regulating bodies involve continuously screening, monitoring over the proper use of antigen its dose range & formulation. Then the preclinical trials on animals is administered upon success followed by clinical trials on human is conducted. This phases continuously determines information about safety, toxicity, drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and relatively adverse effects and interaction with the immune system at all possible levels. By certifying all credentials, the drug is licensed and released which is subjected to monitoring for long term risks.

Vaccine Safety & Efficacy

Due to outbreak of odd diseases vaccines came into rescue to protect from invasion of deadly RNA into the host cell. Apart from efficacy, safety too matters as some of the vaccines causing adverse effects because of the unwanted reactions with the human body. Weighing the benefits and risk of vaccines evaluation, analysis, severity, mortality & morbidity of side effects must be taken into consideration. The risks must be known from vaccinating and non-vaccinating and calculate the benefits rather than risks associated with vaccines. 


Dysfunction of the immune system is termed as immune disorder. These disorders can be characterized in several different ways:

  • By the component(s) of the immune system affected
  • By whether the immune system is overactive or underactive
  • By whether the condition is congenital or acquired

International Union of Immunological Societies has characterized that, there are more than 150 primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). However, the number of acquired immune-deficiencies exceeds the number of PIDs and suggested that most people have at least one primary immunodeficiency, due to redundancies in the immune system.


Geriatric Vaccines

If the human is aging, then aging implies to his body resistance. Due to the morbidity and mortality, one can get non-resistant from several flu & viruses. The level of the immune system which used to suppress foreign cells in the young now reacts slowly, unable to detect/identify foreign cells and gets targeted to viruses, bacteria, flu. Proper vaccines, healthy life style, exercise are required. Alcohol and Smoking weaken the immune system. Knowledge of vaccines is helpful because some are specific to some population.

Vaccines against Drugs

Use of drugs for a long time or drug abuse will lead to some complex adverse effects. In some cases, vaccines can overrule drug addicts who tend to rely totally on drugs. But there are certain drawbacks need to be considered as vaccines work by inducing antibodies in the bloodstream. Because of the variability of antibodies, protection from a structurally different drug which has the same effect as a drug of choice. Results from the ongoing clinical trials show that vaccines provide long term protection with a minimal drug.

Vaccines for Unconventional Diseases

The causative agents of these diseases are characterized as they pose some unusual biological and physical-chemical properties. Vaccines are specially designed to attack the particular root cause and halt the replication of the viruses. Numerous factors make sense that the existing diseases can be outweighed by vaccines. An early intra vitam-Diagnose and in vitro detection can avoid a further spread of this new category of diseases

Vaccine Adjuvants & Delivery Technologies

Vaccine Adjuvants are added to vaccines which promotes immune system to develop antibodies to provide long lasting immunity and also to regulate the use of antigen. Alum, AS04 (which is a mixture of alum & monophosphoryl lipid A), MF59, AS04 are some of the adjuvants used to enhance the immune response.

Thermal stabilization has the ability in transforming the immunization process. Apart from these sugar preserves vaccine for a long and needed time of use. Role of liposomes & Nano particles in delivering the vaccines is crucial.

Neuroendocrine Immunology

Neuro endocrine interacts with the immune system via the ligands, receptors & hormones. During the injury, trauma conditions human is exposed to extreme stress, anxiety, depression then above of the systems interact themselves and pass messages to each other via specific line of axis.

Due to this there will be a substantial impact on the immune system and its functions and loss of homeostasis in the body. The major effect would be the disease development and susceptibility to infections.


Feelings of stress, anxiety & depression evoke and gets normal due to the physiological & behavioural changes. But chronic stress effect on the immune system, nervous system and physiological process of the total body. Due to the effect, there is no homeostasis in hormones production, receptors, cells. Due to dysregulation of the HPA axis which is the primary controller of stress hormone the body prone to auto immune and psychological disorders.

Inflammation and Therapies

Vaccines are potentially beneficial on one hand but causes long term effects on other hand. Extensive use impairs the natural immune system and prone to inflammatory diseases due to the vaccines effect on iatrogenic immune system. Some of the inflammation requires medications and some selfheal but there are some diseases which cannot fight by body which happens to be metabolic syndrome which are associated with vaccines. Bystander activation and Molecular mimicry and are the possible ways for the vaccines to trigger the auto immune disorders. The therapies have come a long way but need to work depending upon the root cause of all this disease.

Antibodies: Engineering & Therapeutics

The engineered antibodies development led a path for the establishment of novel drug therapeutics. These have certain characteristics in penetrating the complex paths, promotes immune protection, Greater binding strength specifically chosen for the targets, Antibody applications used in various fields includes immunology, biotechnology and therapeutics which shows promising results.

Veterinary Vaccines

 Veterinary Vaccines

Molecular And Structural Immunology

 Molecular And Structural Immunology

Medical & Molecular Microbiology

 Medical & Molecular Microbiology







Ocular Immunology

 Ocular Immunology



Stem Cell

 Stem Cell